Insertion Sort in C & C++ – Program & Algorithm

In this tutorial I will explain about algorithm for insertion sort in C and C++ using program example. The insertion sort inserts each element in proper place. The strategy behind the insertion sort is similar to the process of sorting a pack of cards. You can take a card, move it to its location in sequence and move the remaining cards left or right as needed.

In insertion sort, we assume that first element A[0] in pass 1 is already sorted. In pass 2 the next second element A[1] is compared with the first one and inserted into its proper place either before or after the first element. In pass 3 the third element A[2] is inserted into its proper place and so on.

Algorithm for Insertion Sort in C & C++

Let ARR is an array with N elements
1. Read ARR
2. Repeat step 3 to 8 for I=1 to N-1
3. Set Temp=ARR[I]
4. Set J=I-1
5. Repeat step 6 and 7 while Temp<ARR[J] AND J>=0
6. Set ARR[J+1]=ARR[J] [Moves element forward]
7. Set J=J-1
 [End of step 5 inner
8. Set ARR[J+1]=Temp [Insert element in proper place]
 [End of step 2 outer
9. Exit                              

Program for Insertion Sort in C


Program for Insertion Sort in C++

C/C++ Program and Algorithm for Insertion Sort


Complexity of Insertion Sort in C & C++

There is 1 comparison during pass 1 for proper place. There are 2 comparisons during pass 2 for proper place. There are 3 comparisons during pass 3 for proper place, and so on accordingly.
F(n) = 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . . + (n-1) = n (n-1)/2 = O(n2)
Hence complexity for insertion sort program in C and C++ is O(n2).

5 thoughts on “Insertion Sort in C & C++ – Program & Algorithm

  1. Hamza

    please can you modify it add 2 more things.
    1. duplicates values are not allowed.
    2.if you enter array size greater than current size of an array it display a message that you enter large size array and again we have to choose the size unless we have chose right.
    suppose you decleare an array a[12] and you chose array size 13 it is an error .


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